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Sunday, 15 October 2017

Understanding Government Syllabus (Phase 1)

(1)    Government is a machinery through which the will of the state is formulated and attained. As an art, it is a body vested with the power and authority for maintaining security, peace, and stability by making and enforcing laws of the state. As an academic field, it is the study of agencies, political institutions and dynamics of the state. Its attributes are law, revenue, public supports, welfare services, political power. It performs the functions of law making, defence, administration of justice, maintaining internal and external relationships, economic and political responsibilities.

(4)    Power is the ability to control the actions of others through the possession of means of sanctions.  The types or forms of power are political, military, economic and physical power. It can be acquired through charismatic acts, coercion, political authority, inheritance or constitution.

(5)    Authority is the power or right to give orders and enforce obedience. It therefore gives one the right to command others to obey as a duty. The types or forms of authority are political, coercion, charismatic, delegation, technical, traditional, positional, or constitutional. Political authority can be acquired via legal, charismatic, or traditional means.

(6)     Legitimacy is a situation of being lawful or the general acceptance of the political system as the most appropriate and being in line with the laws of the land. There are some factors that affect legitimacy such as existence of good governance, popular support by the citizens, foreign diplomacy adopted by the government, political participation (pressure groups, political parties, etc)

(7)    Sovereignty is the absolute power of the state to exercise supreme legal authority over its own affairs within its territory without any form of external control. The types or forms of sovereignty are legal, political, internal, external, de facto, de jure. The features of sovereignty are absoluteness, indivisibility, inalienability, comprehensiveness, permanence, absence of foreign control. Sovereignty suffer the following limitations; external help, coup d’etat, international laws, influence of pressure groups, customs and traditions, supremacy of the constitution, membership of international organisations, influence of powerful nations

(8)    Political culture is the attitudes, sentiments, beliefs, ideas and norms that guide the behaviour of the people in a political system. Its components or features are cognitive orientation (people’s knowledge about the political system), affective orientation (people’s feelings towards the political system), evaluative orientation (people’s level of assessment of the political system).

(9)    Political Socialization is a process in which the citizens are educated on the values, attitudes and beliefs of the political system. There are agents of political socialization which are the family, the school, the peer group, political parties, the mass media, religious group, pressure groups.

(10)Democracy is a system of government in which all qualified adult citizens share the supreme power directly or through their elected representatives. It is also defined as government of the people, by the people and for the people. Types of democracy are direct democracy (where all citizens are able to participate) indirect democracy which is also called representative democracy (through election, representatives are chosen). The functions of democracy are periodic elections, majority vole rules the country, the press has freedom, existence of separation of power, free and fair election, equality before the law, party system, independence of the judiciary, maintenance of the rule of law, reliable fundamental human rights, opposition government, no intimidation of the voters during election, etc.

(11) Oligarchy is the system of government where power of governance is with few privileged people.  It comes in form of aristocracy, plutocracy, theocracy or even military rule.

(12) Communism is an economic system where the means of production and distribution is totally controlled by government. It is characterized with classless society, the use of force, one party dominance, authoritarian rule, forceful acquisition of private properties, central planned economy, attainment of communism is mostly via revolution.

(13) Totalitarianism is a form of government where one supreme authority controls everything with no form of opposition. It is characterized by absence of opposition, one party dominance, limitation of the press, use of force, absence of rule of law, existence of single ideology and philosophy, suppression of initiatives, censorship of information.

(14) Fascism is an aggressive control through an anti-communist dictatorship. It is characterized by anti-communist movement, aggressive nationalism, avoidance of capitalism and socialism, motivation for war, absence of rule of law, absence of democracy, absence of popular view, absence of religious principles, total control of industrial activities.

(15) Feudalism is a system of government based on hierarchical order of ownership of land. Its features are leadership based on land ownership, lands are very vital, bond between landlord and serfs, existence of fief, feudal duties are performed in order to have access to land benefits.

(16) Communalism is a system of collective ownership among members of a community. Its features are collective ownership, strong co-operation, existence of communal societies, absence of private land ownership, absence of individual ambitions, high degree of cohesion, presence of common cultural belief, etc.

(17) Unitarianism is a system of government where the power is concentrated in the hand of a single authority or central government. It has its features as centralized power, use of unitary constitution, central interference into regional affairs, lack of constitutional division of power, the constitution is not supreme, presence of power delegation, lack of local legislative assemblies, parliamentary supremacy, etc. The reasons for Unitarianism are lack of tribal differences, political expediency, lack of minority groups, no fear of dominance, single language and culture, no economic inequality. Unitarianism has the following merits; stable government, low cost of management, quick decision making, unity persists, simplicity in operation, less bureaucratic, lack of human and material resources, no double loyalty. Unitarianism has the following demerits; encouragement of dictatorship, lack of local initiatives, it does not suit large territories, it does not encourage expansion, it keeps the government away from the people, it may lead to the central government bearing huge burdens.

18) Federalism is a government system that shares power between all arms of the government and each arm is legally and constitutionally independent and autonomous. The features of federalism are rigidity of constitution, supremacy of constitution, bicameral legislature, constitutional repudiation of secession, regions possess residual power, central government is supreme, existence of written constitution, power comes according to constitution, matters in exclusive lists are reserved to the central government. The reasons for federalism are tribal difference, size of the country, absence of marked inequalities, possible expansion of the markets, fear of dominance, desire for union, protection of the interest of minority groups. The merit of federalism are rapid development, enjoyment of economies of scale, greater political strength, more employment opportunity, lack of emergency of dictator, existence of checks and balances, guaranteed human rights, the local dwellers are cared for, room for experimentation, greater participation of the people in government, etc. The demerits of federalism are inter-state friction, fear of dominance, unhealthy rivalry, enthronement of mediocrity, causes dual loyalty, disparity in the level of development, too expensive to manage, problem of wealth sharing, it also create a weak centre.

(19) Confederation is a political arrangement in which autonomous or sovereign states or republics come together to form a union in which almost the major functions of government are reserved exclusively for the component states with a weak centre. Its features are autonomous states, power is with component states, weak centre, constitution empowers the component states, right to secede, less politically stable, flexible constitution, and citizens have to obey only one government. The merit of confederation are growth encouragement, component states has the ability to make diverse laws, caters for local differences, enjoyment of economies of scale, bridge the gap between strong and weak states, prevents one state riding over another, no fear of dominance. The demerits of confederation are lack of even development, flexible government, power resides in the component states, it doesn’t assure political unity, and component states have their own armed force.

(20) Presidential system of government is when power of the state is vested on the president as the executive and legislature are separate arms. The presidential system is characterized with the rule of law, supremacy of the constitution, judicial review and interpretation, limited term of rule, checks and balances, executive power is performed by the president, president and his ministers are not members of the parliament. The merits are checks and balances, fixed tenure of office, separation of power, void of dictatorship, independence of the president, absence of collective responsibility, political stability, democracy, absence of conflict, effective executive arm, absence of official opposition party. The demerits are arbitrary dismissal by the president, long impeachment process, corruption, absence of official opposition, too expensive to manage, frequent frictions occur between executive and legislature.

(22)Parliamentary system of government where the Head of State is different from Head of Government executive and legislature are somewhat similar. Characteristics are lack of strict separation of power, prime minister and cabinet ministers are members of legislature, prime minister is the head of government while president or queen is the head of state, executive arm gets authority from legislature, prime minister and cabinet minister are chosen from the legislative arm. Advantages of cabinet system of government are cooperation, discipline, stable government, efficiency of the executive, reduction of dictatorial tendencies, absence of frequent friction, collective responsibility and there is free flow of information. Disadvantages are frequent changes in government and policies, treat of coalition government, encouragement of arbitrary dismissal, no personal accountability, less democratic, and the fusion of powers does not encourage specialization.

(24) Collective Responsibility means that all members of the cabinet are collectively accountable or responsible foe all decisions and actions taken by the cabinet.

(25) Monarchy is a form of government under the rule of a king, queen or emperor known as the monarch. There is an absolute monarchy which possesses unlimited powers and does not derive power from the constitution and rules by divine rights. The other form is constitutional monarchy where the power is limited to the constitutional provisions.

(26) Republican is that which the Head of State is elected by the people of the state. The features are the Head of State known as the president is elected, rule of law, political and legal equality, officials perform government functions, politically independent, popular sovereignty, and the republican constitution is entirely home-made. 

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    Geography OBJ

    1. "Houses are far apart from one another. They are commonly connected by foot path" this description refers to.

    2. Despersed settlement
      Ribbon settlement
      Urban settlement

    3. An area is said to be overpopulated if

    4. It has more people than its developed physical and human resources can support
      There is not enough food to cater for the population
      There is rural urban migration

    5. Ports that specialize in receiving and redistributing goods to neighboring countries are

    6. River ports
      Inland ports
      Entre ports

    7. The major causes of change in population size are

    8. Birth, marriage and death
      Birth, accident and death
      Birth, death and migration

    9. The greatest problem associated with cattle rearing in west Africa is

    10. The presence of tsetse fly
      Inadequate capital
      Insufficient market

    11. Which of these African countries is noted for lumbering

    12. Uganda

    13. Which of the following is not a favor of land transport to the economic development of any country

    14. Generation of income
      Diffusion of idea and innovation
      Depopulation of urban centres

    15. One of the functions performed by rural settlements for urban settlement is the provisions

    16. Of employment
      Of manufactured goods
      Of agricultural products

    17. Which of the following is the major benefit of international trade

    18. Stabilization of price
      Free movement of people across borders
      Revenue generation

    19. Perishable goods; items of high unit value (gold, diamond) are best transported by

    20. Rail

    21. Which type of rock are quartzite, schist and mable

    22. Igneous

    23. The process of headward erosion will lead to the formation of

    24. Alluvial cones
      Pot holes
      River capture

    25. The nearest planet to the sun is the

    26. Mercury

    27. The longitude that joins longitude 180° at opposite side of the globe to form Great Circle

    28. Longitude 0°
      Longitude 170° W
      Longitude 30° E

    29. The part of the earth's crust that is covered by oceans and sea is called

    30. Ionosphere

    31. Which of the following lines of latitudes divides the earth into two hemispheres

    32. Tropic of cancer
      Antarctic circle
      The equator

    33. In which part of the atmosphere does rain clouds develop

    34. Troposphere

    35. An example of an organically formed sedimentary rock is

    36. Rock salt

    37. Sills, dykes and batholiths are examples of

    38. Extrusive volcanic landform
      Intrusive volcanic landform
      Landforms from earthquake

    39. An advantage of air transport in the world is its

    40. High patronage
      Speedy movement of goods and passengers
      Ability to carry bulky goods

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    English Language OBJ Practice

    The below English language questions are fill in the gap
    1. The exercise presented us with a lot of problems but later it was all_____

    2. Plain

    3. All the cattle on Lamidi's farm _____

    4. Is tick-free
      Are tick-free
      Is ticks-free

    5. _______ been no official reaction to your request yet

    6. There's

    7. Kunle was annoyed for arriving late ______

    8. Also Kemi's rather insolent manner
      Also that Kemi's insolent manner
      And Kemi's rather insolent manner also

    9. Those men helped Dupe and _______

    10. Myself

    11. You can stay here _______ as you are quiet

    12. As long
      So long
      In as much

    13. The Emir and conqueror of the enemy territories _________ next week

    14. Arrives
      Are to arrive

    15. He was ________ by the trickster

    16. Assisted

    17. ______ woman was attacked by a group of bandits

    18. A 90-years old
      A 90-year-old
      A 90 year-old

    19. He was angry with me ________ being treated nonchalantly

    20. For

    21. The teacher with his wife ______ here

    22. Was
      Were to be

    23. ______ he would have been convicted

    24. If he could do this
      If he had done this
      If he did this

    25. What saved her was that she _______ to the side of the boat

    26. Had clinged

    27. When we visited him, he offered us a variety of _______

    28. Hot

    29. The exercise will be easily accomplished by the team if members _______ their ______

    30. Poor/resources together

    31. I have decided to ________ drinking alcohol for health reasons

    32. Abandon
      Give up

    33. I would like to ________ my father to Kaduna

    34. Accompany

    35. One ________ be too careful these days; times are uncertain and walls have ears

    36. Can't
      Need not

    37. I shall never be so tired _______ to write to you

    38. Such that I will be unable
      As not to be able
      That I shan't be able

    39. As you have been here before ________ lead the way

    40. You would better
      It is you who will
      You'd better

    41. My brother got married to a woman with ______

    42. Gorgeous

    43. The thief we caught yesterday was ________ manner

    44. Disguised

    45. The carpenter asked for ten packets of ________ nails

    46. Fifteen centimetres'

    47. The President refused to shake ______ with the visiting Prime Minister

    48. Hand
      His hand

    49. The trader companied that he ________ robbed

    50. Had been
      Has been
      Is being

    Bookkeeping Account Obj

    1. When a shareholder fails to pay the calls requested from him this situation leads to

    2. right issues
      forfeiture of share
      bonus share

    3. Which of the following is not a petty cash book item

    4. purchase of machinery
      purchase of stamp
      purchase of milk

    5. Into how many major types can general purpose computer be classified

    6. three

    7. A sale of goods to Audu was not posted. This is an error of

    8. principle

    9. The total share capital which a company would be allowed to issue is known as

    10. authorized share capital
      working capital
      fixed capital

    11. Which of the following is not a unit of the computer

    12. console

    13. Computer programmes are

    14. micro processor

    15. A statement that measures the performance of a business over a period of time is the

    16. profit and loss account
      balance sheet
      bank statement

    17. Which of the following is the basis of accounting in public service

    18. cash

    19. An expense is said to be revenue in nature if it

    20. reduces the capital of the business
      adds or contributes to the operating income of the business
      adds to or improves the value of fixed assets

    21. Which of the following is not correct

    22. credit purchases are entered on the debit side of the customers personal account
      returns inwards are entered on the credit side of the supplier's personal account
      returns outwards are entered on the debit side of the supplier's account

    23. When discount is allowed the accounting entry is debit discount allowed and credit

    24. expenses account
      debtors account
      suspense account

    25. When partners maintain fixed capital accounts the correct entries for a partner's share of profit

    26. debit profit and loss account credit current account,
      debit profit and loss appropriation account credit capital account
      debit current account credit capital account

    27. The excess of current assets over current liabilities is

    28. working capital
      loan capital
      preference capital

    29. Goodwill is taken into account in partnership when

    30. a partner becomes dominant
      a new partner is admitted
      the business is making huge profit

    31. The excess of current assets over current liabilities is

    32. preference capital
      working capital
      loan capital

    33. A class of preference shares in which dividend rights are carried forward is

    34. cumulative

    35. When both debit and credit entries in respect of a transaction are made in the same ledger account

    36. this is a folio entry
      this is a ledger entry
      this is a centra entry

    37. A business operates on a markup of 25%. If cost of goods sold is #800000. What is the profit

    38. #40000

    39. If #280000 capital turns #485000 at year end and year drawings was #15000; find year profit

    40. #190000


    Civic Education OBJ Practice

    Test how far you have learned your Civic Education Topics...
    1. Nigeria is a

    2. 1999

    3. Franchise means the right to

    4. Contest for political post
      Join association

    5. Citizens who are legally qualified to vote form

    6. The electorates
      The constituency
      The executive council

    7. Who amongst the following personalities has never been INEC chairman

    8. Dr. Abel Guobadia
      Prof. Humphrey Nwosu
      Prof. Attahiru Jega

    9. One of the ways to ensure free and fair election is to

    10. Allow parties to campaign on election day
      Guarantee the security of electoral materials
      Appoint a politician as the chairman of the electoral commission

    11. One of the aims of citizenship education is to produce students with

    12. High sense of patriotism
      Creative skills
      Manipulative skills

    13. Victims of human trafficking are usually compelled to engage in

    14. Lucrative employment
      Visiting tourist sites
      Forced labour

    15. Negative behavior includes the following except

    16. Ostentation living
      Living within our means

    17. Inflation of figures, bad town planning and prohibitive religious beliefs are

    18. Modern day behavior pattern
      Problem of road construction pattern
      Bad behavioral patterns

    19. Civic education is the study of

    20. Activities of government
      Animals in the community
      Primary and secondary schools

    21. Which of the following is not a factor that promotes good values in the society

    22. Dishonesty

    23. Standards, rules and criteria that influence and determine how individual behave in the society is

    24. Attitude

    25. Nigeria is a

    26. Colonial state

    27. Which of the following is not a characteristic of federalism

    28. Two houses of legislature
      Power sharing between central, state and local government
      Power resides at the central government

    29. Who among the following is associated with the concept of the rule of law

    30. Jean Bodin
      Baron Montesquieu

    31. Consumer responsibilities indicates

    32. Franchise
      Making noise in the market
      Things ought to be done by the consumer

    33. Among other things, a consumer's right is

    34. Right to respect the environment
      Right to speak out
      Right to consumer education

    35. Which one is not a pillar of democracy

    36. Democratic institution
      Fraudulent election

    37. Two-party system is one among the features of the following

    38. 1999 Constitution
      1989 Constitution
      1979 Constitution

    39. The origin of democracy is traceable to or associated with

    40. Egyptians
      Roman Empire
      Ancient Greeks

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    Government OBJ Practice

    1. A constitution that has special rules for its amendment is said to

    2. Written

    3. Which of the following statement best describes an unwritten constitution

    4. The legislature is always unicameral
      The body of the rules and laws cannot all be found in a single document
      The source of the constitution is supreme court verdicts

    5. The process by which people vote to elect their representatives is called

    6. Electoral system

    7. Apart from making laws, the legislature has the important function of

    8. Implementing executive decisions
      Appointing the civil servants
      Checking the executive power

    9. Which of the following is a demerit of bicameral legislature

    10. The scope for political participation is limited
      Passing of bills into acts is delayed
      No safeguard for the minority groups

    11. One form of delegated legislation is

    12. Case laws
      Statutory instruments

    13. A system of government in which one level of government exercises an overwhelming authority over o

    14. Confederal

    15. A major weakness of a ine-party system is that

    16. It encourages the emergence of dictators
      It ensures freedom of political choice
      It negates the principle of one man one vote

    17. A multiparty system often leads to the formation of

    18. Coalition government
      Dual government
      Dictatorial government

    19. Under a two-party system, the opposition party is as important as the ruling party

    20. It has equal number of supporters as the ruling party
      It is as strong as the ruling party
      It is the alternative government

    21. Who among the following was dismissed from the Action Group at the Jos Congress of 1962

    22. Anthony Enahoro
      Ladoke Akintola
      Dauda Adegbenro

    23. If the receiving state does not approve a diplomat on account of his past activities, he is

    24. A doyen of diplomatic corps
      An extraordinary ambassador
      A persona-non-grata

    25. Nigeria's idea of Africa as the centrepiece of her foreign policy includes all the following excep

    26. Support for Apartheid policy in South Africa
      Promotion of African Unity
      Settling of disputes in Africa

    27. The organ of Organization of African Unity (OAU) responsible for appointment of Secretary General

    28. Appointment committee
      Liberation committee
      Assembly of the Heads of State and Government

    29. Which of the following is an organ of the United Nations Organization (UNO)

    30. Assembly of Heads of State
      Council of Ministers
      The Security Council

    31. The first agent of political socialization is the

    32. School
      Mass media

    33. Baron Montesquieu was noted for the theory of

    34. Rule of law
      Separation of power
      Delegated legislation

    35. Political sovereignty in the state resides with the

    36. Executive
      National assembly

    37. A political system in which there is only one source of authority in a state is

    38. Confederal

    39. Which of the following best describes an absolute monarch

    40. He wields the supreme power in a state
      He is elected by an electoral college
      He has a fixed tenure of office

    41. Judicial independence means that the courts are independent of the

    42. Civil service and the bar
      Executive and the legislature
      Legislature and the Ministry of Justice

    43. A citizen expresses loyalty to his nation by

    44. Participating in sports
      Supporting political parties
      Singing the national anthem when required

    45. A citizen can participate in the politics of his country by

    46. Acquiring university education
      Attending international meetings
      Contesting for an elective post

    47. The office of the ombudsman is created to act as

    48. Spy for government
      An agency to redress maladministration
      Regulator of government activities

    49. A constitution that has special rules for its amendment is said to be

    50. Written